Supply Chain Insights – Lora Cecere

I have always been impressed with Lora’s foresight. Her initiative to bring together a group of industry experts to test the impact of new smart technology is not something that anyone can easily pull off. And her willingness to share her learning openly is truly a rare find. Supply Chain Insights has moved beyond their competition. Lora is not just an Analyst content to observe, she and her company are being active in shaping the future of supply chain.

The next Global Supply Chain Insight Summit 2018 will be held in Philadelphia, PA on September 4-7, 2018. You can find out more at:

2018 Summit Agenda

Tim Gray

I have always been impressed with Lora's foresight. Her initiative to bring together a group of industry experts to test the impact of new smart technology is not something that anyone can easily pull off. And her willingness to share her learning openly is truly a rare find. Supply Chain [...] Read More...

PROPHIT SYSTEMS ANNOUNCES U.S. LAUNCH

PRESS RELEASE

APAC Supply Chain Solutions Leader PROPHIT SYSTEMS ANNOUNCES U.S. LAUNCH

Prophit® Systems Pty Ltd the innovative leader of Supply Chain Software that makes complex supply chains simple, officially opens for business in the United States. First stop Atlanta.

 

 

 

Prophit® Systems – Atlanta

3333 Piedmont Road,
Suite 2050
Atlanta, GA 30305

PROPHIT SYSTEMS to help SMBs Simplify, Automate and Optimize Supply Chains

Prophit® Systems is thrilled to bring its proven solutions that help manufacturers improve supply chain visibility, streamline the S&OP process and ultimately increase profits to the U.S. market.
“Our success through APAC has been founded on our belief that our systems must simplify and amplify our customers planning process. The speed with which we implement our skin in the game approach and the profound, tangible business value each of our projects deliver has redefined the Supply Chain planning space in APAC.
We are delighted at the demand for our products and services here in the U.S. We are seeing deep interest from the mid-market manufacturers whom have been looking for a solution provider that they can trust to work with them to deliver outstanding results immediately. “ Tim Gray, Managing Director, Prophit Systems.
Prophit® Systems has been actively working behind the scenes for some time, with U.S. subsidiaries and their APAC suppliers, talking to market participants and collaborating with international partners. The company’s exceptional reputation has already gained the attention of the U.S. market, particularly within specific industries such as the Packaging Manufacturing, Dairy Processing and CPG manufacturing.
Leading manufacturers such as Amcor, Visy / Pratt Industries and Browns Dairy (formerly Fonterra) use Prophit® Systems for Forecasting, Capacity Planning, network optimization, inventory optimization, Scheduling, Sequencing, replenishment optimization and shop floor control.
Our commitment to the U.S. market is steadfast and further expansion plans are already underway with more Prophit® Systems locations within the next year.
The launch of the Prophit® Systems Atlanta branch follows the decisive investment into their global expansion strategy. The China Office was launched in early 2015 and we have established implementation partners to distribute Prophit® in Europe. The growth of Prophit® Systems international operations, particularly within the North American region has gained attention and is already being championed by local clients within the United States with significant strategic partner arrangements being confirmed.

ABOUT PROPHIT SYSTEMS – www.ProphitSystems.com
Prophit® Systems is an international Supply Chain software and consulting company headquartered in Sydney Australia. It provides “best of breed” supply chain software to manufacturers with highly complicated supply chain processes. With over two decades experience in the Supply Chain and manufacturing industry, Prophit® Systems consistently delivers a 100% ROI in under 12 months from implementation. The product range is designed to optimize all aspects of an organization’s supply chain and to allow them to fully capitalize on their ERP investment. Prophit® Systems is already the largest supply chain software provider within the APAC region and plans to also become one of the top providers within the North American market.

PRESS RELEASE APAC Supply Chain Solutions Leader PROPHIT SYSTEMS ANNOUNCES U.S. LAUNCH Prophit® Systems Pty Ltd the innovative leader of Supply Chain Software that makes complex supply chains simple, officially opens for business in the United States. First stop Atlanta.       Prophit® Systems – Atlanta 3333 Piedmont Road, […]

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Supply Chain Forecasting “Playbook”

The New Year brings a time of reflection.
Dominos
It’s a common time to review how you are tracking to budget and how you see the next twelve months are panning out. Professional sports teams develop set plays that detail. When A happens we respond with B. These teams assembly all their set plays into “playbooks”. These playbooks are learned by all members of the team so that in a split second all players in the team can respond in a coordinated fashion, often with decisive outcomes.

Agile businesses are doing the same. They are using their planning processes to predict what might happen and prepare the set plays specific to their business.

Two recent examples of set plays we’ve been involved in:
1. A customer is running promotions of certain products without giving us the desired notice. They are responding to their competitors promotions. What can we do to support their un-forecast promotional activities?
2. If customer A is successful in acquiring customer B, they will expect improved pricing. How will we respond to their requests. What will be the full impact on our business?

Developing a playbook for the year ahead is not as hard as it seems. In practice this becomes a working document. The exciting outcome of this approach is it can drag your management team’s focus from what happened yesterday, to navigating and side stepping pending issues before they became a crisis.

Step 1.
If you take the time to confirm your best estimate sales forecast, zone in on those products and customers that are performing above forecast and those that are underperforming.
Identify the major risks and the opportunities around these forecasts.
Develop a high and a low range forecast based on a number of these risks and opportunities playing out.
Step 2.
Develop action plans to address the risks and seize the opportunities as they arise.
Step 3.
Phase the action plans according to Go – No Go criteria. These became your set plays.
Empower your staff with these set plays. If these conditions occur, invoke these actions. Then let me know you have done them.
Step 4.
Review monthly, see how your sales are tracking to forecast, review your best estimate, and see how it is tracking. Determine if your corrective actions / set plays are still current and still adequate.

Successful Supply Chain’s require simply but savvy forecasting methodologies with the right collective mind set.

The New Year brings a time of reflection. It’s a common time to review how you are tracking to budget and how you see the next twelve months are panning out. Professional sports teams develop set plays that detail. When A happens we respond with B. These teams assembly all […]

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Statistical modelling and supply chain forecasting

When I was first getting started in this business a good friend and colleague who knows a thing or two about statistical modelling advised me; “you must understand your demand before you try to fit a statistical model to it”. This advice has served our team well over the years.

A number of statistical supply chain forecasting tools advocate that they will automatically forecast your demand for you. This is a very enticing sales pitch; it implies that the software will do all the work for you. But before you turn your back on the task of forecasting and leave the software to do its thing, a word of caution:

  • Statistics are a great tool for summarising and projecting subtle trends in market demand when there is continual sales history;
  • Statistical tools are poor at predicting demand when the demand is lumpy with periods of no sales. (Examples: Project work, promotions etc.); and
  • Statistics will not predict abrupt changes to demand such as a customer changing their artwork, or a customer moving production of a particular range of products offshore. By the time your statistical model is responding, your warehouse could already be full of items that particular customer will no longer take!

Scenario

One of our packaging clients had invested in a supply chain forecasting software solution that ‘automatically’ adjusted its forecast algorithms to seek the best fit. The sales team were delighted. They no longer had to spend their time creating forecasts. They no longer needed to talk to the customer about emerging trends or understanding the reasons for errors in previous forecasts. They now had more time to go out and sell more product.

Upon reviewing the plant performance, we found that there had been a significant increase in obsolete stock and key customer DIFOT was below expected levels.

When we attended the demand review the dynamic was interesting. Corrective actions that were assigned to resolve the stock outs, all focused on improving the statistics. Corrective actions to resolve slow moving and obsolete stock resulted in requests for the statistical algorithms to be tweaked. The business was allocating all responsibility for correct forecasts onto the systems statistical algorithms.

When we reviewed the new business, we found that sales had remained static. Some new customers had come on, but new sales to existing customers had declined. Perhaps lack of communication with existing customers was affecting repeat business.

Quick Fix

We continued the use of statistics, but we passed the ownership back to the key account managers.
Specifically we provided a portal where the account managers could adopt the statistical forecasts, or they could override them where they knew the statics were not correct, either way they had to choose the forecast they wanted. The ownership for slow moving and obsolete stock (SLOB) was again pushed back onto the account managers.

We coached the sales staff in conducting Business Review and Development (BRAD) reviews with their key customers to understand sales trends and prepare for future sales opportunities. These meetings were scheduled regularly for key accounts.

Information about pending artwork changes and promotions and other business changes that were identified from these BRAD reviews were utilised by the key account managers to override or correct the statistical forecasts as required.

SLOB dramatically reduced by adjusting the forecasts for known changes in products and lost work.

With increased customer contact, new business from existing customers increased.

The statistical tools continue to give a source of information to the key account managers , but responsibility is now on the account managers themselves to determine if it is correct.

Top TIPS

  • Forecasting should be owned by those who face the customers;
  • Statistics are of great assistance, if you understand their limitations; and
  • Sales can use forecasts to periodically talk to their customers. This builds market intelligence and seeds customer loyalty.

Tim Gray is a supply chain industry commentator and advises several businesses across APAC on supply chain systems. He is the managing director at Prophit Systems.

When I was first getting started in this business a good friend and colleague who knows a thing or two about statistical modelling advised me; “you must understand your demand before you try to fit a statistical model to it”. This advice has served our team well over the years. A number […]

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Sales Forecasting

Mergers & Acquisitions and Sales Forecasting

When it comes to forecasting strategic acquisitions the need for containment can often result in an organisation’s planning functions not being directly involved in the processes. Initial scoping and feasibility is done at high level, and then project teams dive into risk assessments and due diligence functions.

At what point should the plans of these acquisitions be included into an existing planning system?

Scenario

Recently a Prophit Systems’ client successfully acquired a segment of a competitors business, thereby increasing their market share. To keep the details confidential, only a handful of people were involved in the financial modelling, and due diligence process.

When details of the acquisition became public knowledge the information provided was sparse and only available from the company’s senior management team. This created a number of costly problems that could have been easily avoided.

When Prophit Systems was asked to get involved, the client had realised that the sales figures that they had expected were not materialising.

In order to understand the cause of this discrepancy our team needed to compare the detailed sales to the expected sales. Unfortunately, the sales forecasting only existed at consolidated levels in balance sheets. The vendor had not provided detailed sales forecasts but rather historic sales figures.

To gain insight into where the problems were occurring, we built a forecast based on the historic sales. This forecast was detailed to the SKU, location and customer (SKULC) level. Having this level of granularity enabled us to slice the forecast vs. actual comparisons by item, by customer and by location to identify where underperformance was occurring.

It quickly became evident that the underperformance was localised to one account manager and another significant customer. Once the source of the issue was identified the Sales Manager was able to get to the root cause of the problems, and take appropriate action.

Now armed with a detailed forecast the Sales Manager was able to rapidly understand how the new business was performing, and where the hot spots were. Having a consolidated forecast of their finished goods requirements, they were also able to construct accurate projections of their raw material requirements.

The company’s acquisition also saw its total product volume increase by some 40%, and this led to an increase in the overall raw material required by the new-look business. Having detailed information about the consolidated material requirements our team leveraged this information to instigate a round of raw material price negotiations between the company and its suppliers.

Lessons Learnt

  1. Obtain detailed forecasts as early as possible in your M&A transactions.
    You will need this to build management targets, to help the transition and to facilitate the speed uptake of the management issues
  2. Use these forecasts to chart your progress, and manage the transition of incorporating the new business. This is a risky time, where clients may jump ship. You need to manage the transition carefully.
  3. Your raw material volume discounts thanks to the increased volume demand in an acquisition can be significant. The sooner the data is available to the various teams within the supply chain the earlier these discounts can be brought to bear.

When it comes to forecasting strategic acquisitions the need for containment can often result in an organisation’s planning functions not being directly involved in the processes. Initial scoping and feasibility is done at high level, and then project teams dive into risk assessments and due diligence functions. At what point […]

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Manufacture forecasting

Forecast with the ‘end’ in mind

Begin with the end in mind.

If you are implementing or reinvigorating a forecasting program, it is important to realistically review where forecasting will provide the most benefit and also which benefits will be most quickly realised.

Scenario

A business I worked with had 7 sites across Australasia, and we were helping them with improving their cost of manufacture. Prior to our engagement the management team had initiated a forecasting program so that they could have better information to run their business.
This business had a little over a thousand SKULs (Stock keeping unit by location). A choice had been made to forecast every SKUL every week out for a rolling year (52 weeks).
So every month they would review approximately 52000 pieces of data (1000 SKUL x 52 weeks) aiming to ratify these forecasts.

Not only was this a horrendous task, it was extremely error prone, it tied up planners at all sites, and created a lot of angst and resentment.
With a little coaxing we were able to confirm three significant reasons to continue forecasting:

  1. The first reason was to ensure they did not run the customer out of stock
  2. The second reason was to plan raw material purchasing on overseas suppliers
  3. The third reason was to facilitate forward planning so idle capacity could be used to stock build for the peak periods

Quick Fix

Once we ratified why the business needed forecasts, we could then ascertain what detail was required and how to refine the system to meet those needs in the simplest way possible.

To ensure the customers were not run out of stock, we loaded the customers 4 week rolling forecasts directly into the execution system for stock replenishment, bypassing the forecasting system all together.

All high value Raw material purchasing had six month lead times. The Capacity modelling was required out 24 months . To satisfy these information requirements we provided an interface to input Forecasts in monthly buckets by customer. We then disaggregated these forecasts using historic usage to split their customer forecasts into SKU level Forecasts. These forecasts were then loaded back into the execution system to plan raw material purchases and do capacity modelling.

The punch line was that instead of managing 52,000 SKUL-period combinations we were able to reduce this 100 fold to 20 customer forecasts over 24 monthly periods. Upon simplifying the process the users found it easy to update their forecasts. The business found it much easier to ratify and therefore trust these forecasts. With confidence in their forecasts, our client dramatically and sustainably reduced their Raw material inventories.

Top TIPS

  • Understand the main benefits you expect from forecasting
  • Design the simplest solution that is fit for your business purpose
  • To seed the habitat and value of forecasting, plan for small wins quickly
  • Review your process to ensure that you are achieving your expected outcomes

Tim Gray is the principle consultant for StrategicAlliance a supply chain improvement consultancy.

Begin with the end in mind. If you are implementing or reinvigorating a forecasting program, it is important to realistically review where forecasting will provide the most benefit and also which benefits will be most quickly realised. Scenario A business I worked with had 7 sites across Australasia, and we […]

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Supply Chain Ship

Do you understand the weaknesses in your supply chain?

As a SCM solutions provider we understand that there are an infinite number of variables that influence a supply chain’s efficacy. This fact can make identifying the true culprit of a supply chain failure incredibly difficult. In many cases when there is a catastrophic failure within a supply chain managers tend to look for direct cause and this in most cases will be identified as one or two outside forces that were beyond their control. However, what these witch hunts fail to do is look at the bigger picture and identify all the factors that contributed to a supply chain disruption.

In John Manners-Bell’s book, Supply Chain Risk, he draws parallels between the Swiss Cheese Model and supply chain management. The Swiss Cheese Model was developed by academics in the risk analysis field. The gist of the model is that factors contributing to everyday operating procedures can be present for long periods of time without showing any symptoms of contributing to a potential adverse effect. It is only once a specific set of these dormant factors come together that operating conditions will see upheaval.

“All organisations have latent conditions – on their own they do not result in catastrophic failure.  However, what is required is an ‘active failure’ which, when these latent conditions align across a network or organisation triggers a disastrous event.”

John goes on to provide an example which most people managing supply chains can relate to.

Imagine a carrier carrying key components to a factory is late with its delivery. Consequently, the factory has to shut down or 24 hours, which sees millions of dollars of production lost. The most obvious culprit to this scenario is the carrier itself.

However, what if the company in question whose factory is standing dormant waiting for the parts was actively pursuing leaner manufacturing, which in turn, had seen a minimisation of inventory and safety stock? What if procurement had also minimised their cost by sourcing parts from a foreign-based supplier and an earlier shipment had been rejected due to a failed quality inspection?

What if when appointing the new supplier the new lead-times had not been accurately accounted for and the potential for something going wrong along the new delivery route hadn’t been factored into planning and forecasting models?

Now all of a sudden the carrier (and the driver responsible for the delivery who was subsequently ‘let go’) aren’t solely responsible for the loss in revenue. In this case management and the relevant systems need to own a lion’s share of the responsibility for the failure.

This reality plays a major role in how we at Prophit Systems develop and implement our offering. We focus on making the input of variables as easy and error free as possible, while making sure that triggers are in place that will alert managers of any potential future anomalies that could impact any part of the supply chain. Furthermore, our reporting tools are designed to deliver transparent insights so that the combination of factors that led to a negative outcome can be identified and addressed.

As a SCM solutions provider we understand that there are an infinite number of variables that influence a supply chain’s efficacy. This fact can make identifying the true culprit of a supply chain failure incredibly difficult. In many cases when there is a catastrophic failure within a supply chain managers […]

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Forecast Planning

A Checklist for 2015

The New Year brings a time of reflection.

It is a common time to review how you are tracking to budget and how you see the next twelve months are panning out.

Agile businesses using their planning processes to predict what might happen, and prepare the practical action plans, specific to their business.

Two recent examples of action plan generation we have been involved in include:
– A company running promotions of certain products without giving our client the desired notice. They are responding to their competitors’ promotions, and cannot give the requested lead time. With this understanding, we have developed strategies to support these un-forecasted promotional activities.
– A competitor attempts to acquire a customer from our client. One of these two customers enjoys lower costs because of their volumes. They will expect improved pricing across both portfolios. Not sure I follow these 2 lines. Being prepared for the pending price negotiations, my client is now preparing defensive strategies to achieve cost downs, without sacrificing margin.

Developing a playbook for the year ahead is not as hard as it seems, if you follow the basic steps identified below:

Step 1.
Take the time to confirm you best estimate sales forecast, zone in on those products and customers that are performing above forecast, and those that are underperforming.

Identify the major risks and the opportunities around these forecasts.

Develop a high and a low range forecast based on a number of these risks and opportunities playing out.

Step 2.
Confirm the business consequences and corrective actions if you hit these high or low forecasts.

Develop action plans to address the risks and seize the opportunities as they arise. These will become your set action plans that will help you stay on the high side of your forecasts.

Step 3.
Phase the action plans according to ‘Go – No Go’ criteria. These become your set action plans.
Empower your staff with these set action plans. If these ‘Go’ conditions have occurred then invoke the action plans. (i.e execute the action plans and then confirm that you have done them.)

Step 4.
Review weekly and monthly, see how your sales are tracking to forecast, review your best estimate, and see how it is tracking. Determine if your corrective actions / set plays are still current and still adequate.

In practice these forecasts and set action plans become a working document. The exciting outcome of this approach is two fold: first you will find you are responding to opportunities much faster than if you are purely reactive,

Secondly your management team will feel and act more in control, as they look ahead at what will happen, rather than steering the company by looking in the rear view mirror.

 

Question – does this approach increase the likelihood of achieving desired approach? If yes, how? Hard ROI? Soft ROI? The 2 outcomes above seem to move to a soft ROI. Answering this question with both hard ROI and soft ROI will motivate the companies to follow your approach.

The New Year brings a time of reflection. It is a common time to review how you are tracking to budget and how you see the next twelve months are panning out. Agile businesses using their planning processes to predict what might happen, and prepare the practical action plans, specific […]

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Focus on forecasting

Where to begin?

I was recently asked , in the context of forecasting, “what should a new CEO look at in their first 180 days?”

While we are still new to a business, and before we know the given answers for why things are done, we often see opportunities with surprising clarity. Ranking and assessing which are the golden opportunities, while you are still new, is challenging but well worth the effort

Dissecting your forecasting in meaningful ways will enhance your visibility of your customers as well as your sales processes.

Reviewing your forecasts will greatly increase your understanding of the risks and opportunities within these revenue streams

Continual monitoring of these revenue streams will ensure that you are prepared to manage risks and exploit opportunities as they arise.

So my answer to this question would be “Interrogate your forecasted revenue streams in enough detail to see risks and opportunities as they arise”

The challenge then becomes, how do you interrogate your revenue streams when you are new to the business?

 

Scenario

I was recently invited to review a business that sold 11,500 SKUs across four major brands. They had a dozen distribution centres, selling to 8 regions across Australasia. Their supply foot print included 2 manufacturing sites here in Australia and 3 in Asia.

They had 2,500 retail sales customers, and a team of 24 key account and sales managers.

The challenge for me was determining how to view the Sales history and forecasting data, to quickly and clearly understand what was happening to this business.

 

Quick Fix 

There are entirely too many customers to analyse meaningfully, even when just focusing on the major customers.

On closer inspection, there were many ship to customers, that belonged to the same retail chains. We introduced a notional national customer hierarchy.

Even after doing this, there were still some 1000 entries under the national customer category (Many stores did not belong to large chains, but they still had their own national customer entry)

In order to give us a manageable amount of customer groups, we reassigned the lowest volume national customers to a “Small Retail” group.

By adjusting the cut off of who was in and out of the “Small Retail” group, we got down to 15 National Customer groups (Approx 70% of all sales)

This for me is a manageable number of major accounts to review.

The 8 Regions and 4 Brands were other slices of the same sales revenue picture.

In order to qualify if the forecasts were sensible, we needed to compare what had recently sold, vs forecast and budget for the same period, and then use that to confirm the forward forecasts.

We constructed a Forecast vs Actual template that had three distinct regions

• Sales by National Customer group
• Sales by Region
• Sales by Brand.

Against each entry we displayed

Last quarters actuals vs Last Quarters Budget vs Last Quarters forecast

Next quarters fcast vs Next Quarters Budget, and full FYR projections

This formatting highlighted where there were inconsistent trends.

I distributed these to the sales managers, and requested commentary where there was significant movement in either the previous period to plan or future periods to plan.

This summary document (without comments) fit onto a single A4 page, and with comments spanned just a few pages.

Having taken the time to segregate and format these revenue streams, and armed with the commentary of the sales managers I was in a strong position to discuss the validity of the forecasts being presented.

By discussing and challenging these forecasts with the sales managers, other layers of insights started quickly coming into focus.

 

Top TIPS

1. Ensure you have enough resolution in your sales forecasts to see risks and opportunities as they arise
2. Look for the exceptions, what has changed since last month, and why
3. Challenge your teams forecasts, this will improve your understanding of your team and your customers
remember: What interests you will fascinate your employees. If you pay attention to your team’s forecasts, they will do their best to improve them.

Where to begin? I was recently asked , in the context of forecasting, “what should a new CEO look at in their first 180 days?” While we are still new to a business, and before we know the given answers for why things are done, we often see opportunities with […]

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Is your business poised, as ready to seize opportunities as it is to dodge issues before they strike?

Charles Darwin noted it is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. While the eminent Naturalist was observing evolution in the animal kingdom, I submit that this quote is equally applicable to our business world.

In business being the first to react to an emerging opportunity which can translate to enormous financial gain. Being slow to respond to a softening market can create enormous pressure on cash flow and has seen many businesses go the way of the Dodo.

The first 6 months of 2011 has been a time when almost every Australian manufacturer will have felt a major disruption to their supply chain. Whether, it has been floods in Queensland, earthquakes in New Zealand, tsunamis in Japan, volcanoes in Chile or armed conflicts closing the Suez canal, disruptions to domestic and global supply chains have been immense.

It is time to reflect how your company has performed during this period. Did it navigate its’ way through these difficult challenges or did you have to wait for the water to recede to see the consequences?

If, it is the latter, then you have experienced a gap in your business planning capabilities. Those who navigated through the challenges had scenario management capability. To define scenario management; it is the ability to change your consumption forecasts, production capacity, inventory levels and customer service levels with full visibility of the consequences on your operational and working capital costs. Having the financial consequences of multiple scenarios gives your decision making capability real clarity when your business environment changes over night.

Let us use the example of the Christchurch earthquake and assume you have a manufacturing site there. Also, you have other manufacturing sites in the Australia and New Zealand region. You get the news late afternoon of the disaster. What are the questions do you need answered?

Is your factory affected? Is it destroyed? Is it structurally sound? Does it have essential services? When will you get them? How have your customers been affected? Which ones and are they still operating or when will they be? How are your employees affected? Have you got inventory in the warehouse in Christchurch? Is the stock destroyed or can you get it?

Some of these questions may take weeks to get an answer, but you now have to make decisions which will have huge impacts on your profitably. This is where scenario management comes in. You can quickly use logic to distill a number of scenarios from those questions above that will assist you manage your business most profitably. If you can do the scenarios in a day or two you will have trigger points for your decision making process as facts come to light over the coming weeks and months. The benefit is that you will have a full understanding of the detailed costs involved at each of the trigger points. Although you have suffered a disaster, you are now enabled to proactively manage the business through this difficult time. This is proactive management that can add percent points to your EBITDA.

VISY PET Beverages Christchurch used Prophit Systems software to navigate this particular example.

Charles Darwin noted it is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. While the eminent Naturalist was observing evolution in the animal kingdom, I submit that this quote is equally applicable to our […]

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